To Marble Wood - 
1)   Give it a coat of black diluted in varnish. repeat it one, two, three, or as many times as you think proper; then polish it as usual.
2)   Dilute next, some white in a white varnish made with white gum, or shell-lack, and white sandarac. Lay this white on the black ground tracing with it what strokes and oddities you like. When dry, give a light rub with rushes, then wipe it, and give a last coat of fine transparent white varnish, in order to preserve the brightness of the white. Let this dry at leisure, then polish it. “Valuable Secrets Concerning Arts and Trades.” 1780. P.182.  From Chapter XXVI To marble wood.

To Marble Wood -

1)   Give it a coat of black diluted in varnish. repeat it one, two, three, or as many times as you think proper; then polish it as usual.

2)   Dilute next, some white in a white varnish made with white gum, or shell-lack, and white sandarac. Lay this white on the black ground tracing with it what strokes and oddities you like. When dry, give a light rub with rushes, then wipe it, and give a last coat of fine transparent white varnish, in order to preserve the brightness of the white. Let this dry at leisure, then polish it. “Valuable Secrets Concerning Arts and Trades.” 1780. P.182.  From Chapter XXVI To marble wood.


Directions for painting in oil on a wall - You must, when the wall is perfectly dry, give it two or three coats of boiling oil, or more, if necessary, so that the face of the wall may remain greasy, and can soak in no more; then, lay another coat of siccative colours, which is done as follows. Grind some common whitening, or chalk, red ocher, and other sorts of earth, pretty stiff, and lay a coat of it on the wall. When this is very dry, then draw and paint on it whatever you will, observing to mix a little varnish among your colours, that you may not be obliged to varnish them afterwards. “Valuable Secrets Concerning Arts and Trades.” 1780. P.132.  From Chapter CXVI. Directions for painting in oil on a wall.

Directions for painting in oil on a wall - You must, when the wall is perfectly dry, give it two or three coats of boiling oil, or more, if necessary, so that the face of the wall may remain greasy, and can soak in no more; then, lay another coat of siccative colours, which is done as follows. Grind some common whitening, or chalk, red ocher, and other sorts of earth, pretty stiff, and lay a coat of it on the wall. When this is very dry, then draw and paint on it whatever you will, observing to mix a little varnish among your colours, that you may not be obliged to varnish them afterwards. “Valuable Secrets Concerning Arts and Trades.” 1780. P.132.  From Chapter CXVI. Directions for painting in oil on a wall.

To Paint in Varnish on Wood (Useful to Carriage Painters.)
1. The preparation of the wood, previous to the laying of colours, and the general process observed in laying them on it.
1)   You must first lay on the wood two coats of Troyes-white, diluted with size water. Next, lay over these a third coat of ceruse. Then having mixed the colour you want with turpentine oil, add the varnish to it, and lay it on the wood, previously prepared as follows.
2)   Polish the wood, first, with shavegrass or horsetail, and then with pounce-stone. Lay afterwards six or seven coats of colour mixed with varnish, allowing after each coat a sufficient time to dry, before laying on the next; then polish over the last coat with pounce-stone grinded on marble into a subtile powder. When this is done, lay two or three coats of pure white varnish. As soon as this dry, rub it over with a soft rag dipped into fine olive oil, then rub it with tripoly reduced into subtile powder; and having wiped it with a clean piece of linen, pass a piece of wash-leather all over it. “Valuable Secrets Concerning Arts and Trades.” 1780. P.93.  From Chapter VI - Secrets Concerning Colours and Painting.

To Paint in Varnish on Wood (Useful to Carriage Painters.)

1. The preparation of the wood, previous to the laying of colours, and the general process observed in laying them on it.

1)   You must first lay on the wood two coats of Troyes-white, diluted with size water. Next, lay over these a third coat of ceruse. Then having mixed the colour you want with turpentine oil, add the varnish to it, and lay it on the wood, previously prepared as follows.

2)   Polish the wood, first, with shavegrass or horsetail, and then with pounce-stone. Lay afterwards six or seven coats of colour mixed with varnish, allowing after each coat a sufficient time to dry, before laying on the next; then polish over the last coat with pounce-stone grinded on marble into a subtile powder. When this is done, lay two or three coats of pure white varnish. As soon as this dry, rub it over with a soft rag dipped into fine olive oil, then rub it with tripoly reduced into subtile powder; and having wiped it with a clean piece of linen, pass a piece of wash-leather all over it. “Valuable Secrets Concerning Arts and Trades.” 1780. P.93.  From Chapter VI - Secrets Concerning Colours and Painting.

 X. A size
Take half a pound of fresh-cod’s tripes; boil it in two quarts of white-wine, reduced to one third. To take off the bad smell, add while it boils, a little cloves and cinnamon. Then throw this size in whatever mould you please, to make it in flakes. “Valuable Secrets Concerning Arts and Trades.” 1780. p.59. From Chapter IV - Secrets relative to Masticks, Cements, Sealing-Wax, &c. &c..

 X. A size

Take half a pound of fresh-cod’s tripes; boil it in two quarts of white-wine, reduced to one third. To take off the bad smell, add while it boils, a little cloves and cinnamon. Then throw this size in whatever mould you please, to make it in flakes. “Valuable Secrets Concerning Arts and Trades.” 1780. p.59. From Chapter IV - Secrets relative to Masticks, Cements, Sealing-Wax, &c. &c..

LXII. To imitate porphyry.Take English brown red, if too red, add a little umber to it, or some soot. Pound all into powder. Then have a plank, or marble stone, of a fine polish, which you overlay with oil. Make a colour composed of brown red, and a little flat, or Venetian, lake previously grinded with gum adragant. Then with a largish brush, take of that colour, and asperse your oiled marble with it, by striking the handle of the brush on your wrist, as the book binders do to stain the covers of their books. When your marble shall have been thus well speckled all over with that red colour, you let it dry. Then, taking your lump of brown red and umber, you dilute it, make a thin paste of it, and lay it on your speckled marble. When this is also dry, it admits of a very fine polish, and looks like porphyry. “Valuable Secrets Concerning Arts and Trades.” 1780. p.57.

LXII. To imitate porphyry.

Take English brown red, if too red, add a little umber to it, or some soot. Pound all into powder. Then have a plank, or marble stone, of a fine polish, which you overlay with oil. Make a colour composed of brown red, and a little flat, or Venetian, lake previously grinded with gum adragant. Then with a largish brush, take of that colour, and asperse your oiled marble with it, by striking the handle of the brush on your wrist, as the book binders do to stain the covers of their books. When your marble shall have been thus well speckled all over with that red colour, you let it dry. Then, taking your lump of brown red and umber, you dilute it, make a thin paste of it, and lay it on your speckled marble. When this is also dry, it admits of a very fine polish, and looks like porphyry. “Valuable Secrets Concerning Arts and Trades.” 1780. p.57.

XVI. The Chinese Varnish
1. Take pulverised and sifted sealing wax, two ounces.  Put it in a matrass with four ounces of turpentine oil.  Give a gentle fire, that all may melt.  If the wax be red, you need add nothing but the oil.  If black, some lamp-black is requisite to be added still.  And, with this first composition, you lay on the first coat.
2. Next to this have aloes and karabe [amber], of each two ounces.  dissolve this in a varnished pipkin, along with twelve ounces of lintseed oil, till all is well incorporated.  There will fall a ground to the bottom, over which will swim a very fine and transparent liquor.  Of this you are to make your second coat of varnish, laying it over the other after it is dry. “Valuable Secrets Concerning Arts and Trades”. 1780. p.43.

XVI. The Chinese Varnish

1. Take pulverised and sifted sealing wax, two ounces.  Put it in a matrass with four ounces of turpentine oil.  Give a gentle fire, that all may melt.  If the wax be red, you need add nothing but the oil.  If black, some lamp-black is requisite to be added still.  And, with this first composition, you lay on the first coat.

2. Next to this have aloes and karabe [amber], of each two ounces.  dissolve this in a varnished pipkin, along with twelve ounces of lintseed oil, till all is well incorporated.  There will fall a ground to the bottom, over which will swim a very fine and transparent liquor.  Of this you are to make your second coat of varnish, laying it over the other after it is dry. “Valuable Secrets Concerning Arts and Trades”. 1780. p.43.

XVII. How to imitate a black jasper, or variegated black marble.Take sulphur-vivum, quick lime, aquafortis, and the green rind of walnuts, equal quantities, one ounce of each. Dilute all together; then lay it with a brush on what you want to be jaspered, whether a column, a table, or anything else. This done, put your table or column, &c. thus blackened, in a dunghill, for the space of twelve days, and then take it out again. You will find it well veined and variegated. To give it a fine gloss afterwards, you rub it with a varnish composed as prescribed hereafter.     “Valuable Secrets Concerning Arts and Trades”. 1780. p.43.

XVII. How to imitate a black jasper, or variegated black marble.

Take sulphur-vivum, quick lime, aquafortis, and the green rind of walnuts, equal quantities, one ounce of each. Dilute all together; then lay it with a brush on what you want to be jaspered, whether a column, a table, or anything else. This done, put your table or column, &c. thus blackened, in a dunghill, for the space of twelve days, and then take it out again. You will find it well veined and variegated. To give it a fine gloss afterwards, you rub it with a varnish composed as prescribed hereafter.     “Valuable Secrets Concerning Arts and Trades”. 1780. p.43.

The Art of Painting in Oyl. A late 17th century housepainting manual that was revised throughout the next 150 years.
I identified this as one of the most influential books during a review of such works.
The pigments employed at that time can be seen in these two extracts:
a) The white, black and red pigments;
b) The blue, brown, green and yellow pigments.

The Art of Painting in Oyl. A late 17th century housepainting manual that was revised throughout the next 150 years.

I identified this as one of the most influential books during a review of such works.

The pigments employed at that time can be seen in these two extracts:

a) The white, black and red pigments;

b) The blue, brown, green and yellow pigments.

The Folly of Taste.
William Hogarth. The Man of Taste. At the top of Burlington Gate the statue of architect William Kent, admired by Raphael and Michelangelo at his feet. On a scaffold below Alexander Pope white-washing the gate and in his enthusiasm splashes both passers-by and the coach of the Duke of Chandos.

The Folly of Taste.

William Hogarth. The Man of Taste. At the top of Burlington Gate the statue of architect William Kent, admired by Raphael and Michelangelo at his feet. On a scaffold below Alexander Pope white-washing the gate and in his enthusiasm splashes both passers-by and the coach of the Duke of Chandos.

In those heady days before Health and Safety regulations.

In those heady days before Health and Safety regulations.

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